93 | Stories from America and its struggling colonies | See especially Peter Hulme and William H. Sherman (eds), ‘The Tempest’ and its Travels (Philadelphia, 2000). The introduction to Alden T. Vaughan and Virginia Mason Vaughan’s Arden 3 edition of The Tempest (London, 2011) also has plentiful detail on the play’s analogues and sources.
94 | Across the Atlantic | The most useful narrative account of early American Shakespeares is Alden T. Vaughan and Virginia Mason Vaughan’s slim Shakespeare in America (Oxford, 2012), esp. chaps 1 and 2. Esther Cloudman Dunn’s Shakespeare in America (New York, 1939) and Kim C. Sturgess’s Shakespeare and the American Nation (Cambridge, 2004) also contain colourful detail, particularly on the Founding Fathers and the Revolutionary period.
95 | Shakespeare quotation | Julius Caesar, 4.2.270–6.
96 | Washington quotation | In John C. Fitzpatrick, The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 39 vols (Washington, DC, 1931–44), vol 13, 15 [http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000366819].
97 | Lewis Hallam | By far the best account of early American stages from the Hallams onwards is Charles H. Shattuck’s Shakespeare on the American Stage: From the Hallams to Edwin Booth (Washington DC, 1976).
97 | One early tale | Elegantly retold by Sylvia Morris in ‘Early American Visitors to Stratford-upon-Avon’, The Shakespeare Blog, 6 August 2014 [http://theshakespeareblog.com/2014/08/shakespeare-and-americans-early-visitors-to-stratford].
99 | Shakespeare quotation | Cymbeline, 3.6.37–42.
100 | Original Pronunciation | The case for OP is made by linguist David Crystal, whose Original Pronunciation site contains numerous examples and sound clips: [http://originalpronunciation.com].
100 | fondness for spectacular staging | See Andrew Gurr and Farah Karim-Cooper (eds), Moving Shakespeare Indoors: Performance and Repertoire in the Jacobean Playhouse (Cambridge, 2014).
101 | Shakespeare quotation | Cymbeline, 4.2.259–64.
102 | ‘most universally worship’ | The director was Joseph Adams; see Stephen H. Grant, Collecting Shakespeare: The Story of Henry and Emily Folger (Baltimore, 2014), 179. For the link with the streetplan, see Balz Engler, ‘Shakespeare, Washington, Lincoln: The Folger Library and the American Appropriation of the Bard’ [http://shine.unibas.ch/shine– folgerwf.htm].
103 | Born in New York City | The most detailed account of the careers and collecting of Henry and Emily Folger is Grant’s Collecting Shakespeare. See also Esther Ferington (ed.), Infinite Variety: Exploring the Folger Shakespeare Library (Washington DC, 2002).
107 | ‘a good Folio’ | See Amy Iggulden, ‘Shakespeare First Folio sells for £2.8m’, The Telegraph, 14 July 2006 [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1523856/Shakespeare-First-Folio-sells-for-2.8m.html].
107 | the Folio is dirt common | The standard reference work in the area is Anthony James West, The Shakespeare First Folio, 2 vols (Oxford, 2001–05). See also Emma Smith’s more recent Shakespeare’s First Folio: Four Centuries of an Iconic Book (Oxford, 2016).
107 | every quarto had a tale to tell | The British Library’s Shakespeare in Quarto site is a superb resource, containing images of 107 quartos as well as plentiful ancillary information [http://www.bl.uk/treasures/shakespeare/homepage.html].
109 | 44 loaves of bread | The metric is West’s; see The Shakespeare First Folio, vol. 1, ‘Sales and Prices of First Folios: A History from 1623 to the Present’.
109 | of 158 known First Folios | The figures are Sidney Lee’s, in A Census of Shakespeare’s First Folio (Oxford, 1902), updated by West.
110 | Charlton K. Hinman | See Steven Escar Smith, ‘“The Eternal Verities Verified”: Charlton Hinman and the Roots of Mechanical Collation’. Studies in Bibliography 53 (2003), 129–61.
111 | Emerson who had inspired | The most focused account of Emerson on Shakespeare (and Shakespeare on Emerson) is David Greenham’s in Peter Rawlings (ed.), Great Shakespeareans: Emerson, Melville, James, Berryman (London, 2011).
112 | Emerson quotation | In Ralph Waldo Emerson, Essays and Poems, ed. Joel Porte, Harold Bloom and Paul Kane (New York, 1996), 721.
112 | a much more dangerous speculation | The best account of the numerous authorship controversies – many of them American in origin – is in James Shapiro’s Contested Will: Who Wrote Shakespeare? (New York, 2010).
114 | Pinckney Marcius-Simons | This beautiful illustrated edition is viewable in full online at the Folger site [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/detail/FOLGERCM1~6~6~994724~169095:-Illustrations-to-A-midsummer-night].
115 | a surprisingly gossipy history | Giles E. Dawson, History of the Folger Shakespeare Library, 1932–68, unpublished typescript (1994).
116 | this republican play | See Michael Dobson, ‘Let him be Caesar!’, London Review of Books 29/15 (2 August 2007) [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n15/michael-dobson/let-him-be-caesar]. More details of Julius Caesar’s history on stage in the US can be found in Shattuck, and Vaughan and Vaughan.
116 | real-life American political tragedy | See David Bromwich, ‘Shakespeare, Lincoln and Ambition’, New York Review of Books, 11 April 2014 [http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2014/04/11/shakespeare-lincoln-ambition]. More details are in Vaughan and Vaughan, and Lincoln’s letter to James H. Hackett is included in James Shapiro (ed.), Shakespeare in America: An Anthology from the Revolution to Now (New York, 2014).
119 | as early as 1764 | See Andrew Murphy, Shakespeare in Print: A History and Chronology of Shakespeare Publishing (Cambridge, 2003), 143–44.
119 | a vivid and nerve-jangling tale | Reported in Dunn, 188–89.
119 | Tocqueville quotation | Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, trans. Harvey Claflin Mansfield and Delba Winthrop (Chicago, 2000), 445 (vol. 2, part 1, chap. 13).
120 | I stumbled across an article | Levette J. Davidson, ‘Shakespeare in the Rockies’, Shakespeare Quarterly 4 (1953), 39–49. Quotations from Humfreville and Carrington are taken from here.
121 | an item appeared in the Rocky Mountain News | See Melvin Schoberlin, From Candles to Footlights: A Biography of the Pike’s Peak Theatre, 1859–76 (Denver, 1941), 61–62. Quotations are from here.
123 | a novel I’d been meaning to read for years | Jane Smiley, A Thousand Acres (New York, 1991).
123 | Shakespeare’s main source | The best recent edition of King Leir is by Tiffany Stern (London, 2002) in the Globe quartos series; for an account of how Shakespeare might have used the text, see Meredith Skura, ‘What Shakespeare Did with the Queen’s Men’s King Leir and When’, Shakespeare Survey 63 (2010), 316–25.
124 | Smiley quotation | Smiley, 20.
124 | Shakespeare quotation | King Lear [Folio version], 1.5.26–32.
125 | Shakespeare quotation | The Rape of Lucrece, 561–7.
127 | Tocqueville quotation | Democracy in America, 445 [vol. 2, part 1, chap. 13].
127 | least occupied with literature | Democracy in America, 445 [vol. 2, part 1, chap. 13].
128 | Actors had been touring the frontier | On Shakespeare and the expanding United States, see especially Vaughan and Vaughan, chap. 3.
129 | George Frederick Cooke | See Shattuck, 32–36.
129 | Edmund Kean | See Shattuck, 37–43.
130 | James Henry Hackett | See Shattuck, 56–62.
130 | Edwin Forrest | The best and most detailed account of Forrest, Macready and the Astor Place Riot is Nigel Cliff’s The Shakespeare Riots: Revenge, Drama and Death in Nineteenth- Century America (New York, 2007). See also Shattuck, 70–87.
132 | the Gold Rush was on | The most engaging account of the Gold Rush and its origins is H. W. Brands, The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (New York, 2002); in my account of the period I have drawn many details from here.
133 | ‘at once urban and a frontier’ | Brands, 232.
134 | The volumes of San Francisco Theatre Research | San Francisco Theatre Research (18 vols), various authors and editors (San Francisco, 1938–42).
134 | California’s first purpose-built theatre | The most focused account of early Californian theatre is Misha Berson, The San Francisco Stage: From Gold Rush to Golden Spike, 1849–69 (San Francisco, 1989).
134 | Ulysses S. Grant | See Michael Dobson, Shakespeare and Amateur Performance: A Cultural History (Cambridge, 2011), 131.
134 | a volunteer company from New York | See Helene Wickham Koon, How Shakespeare Won the West: Players and Performances in America’s Gold Rush, 1849–65 ( Jefferson, NC, 1989), especially chap. 2, ‘Soldiers and Amateurs’.
135 | Shakespeare was experiencing his own restless expansion | See especially Vaughan and Vaughan, chap. 3, and Jennifer Lee Carrell, ‘How the Bard Won the West’, Smithsonian 29/5 (August, 1998), 99–107.
135 | Ashley T. Thorndike | Ashley T. Thorndike, Shakespeare in America (London, 1927), 10.
136 | The famous seven-strong Chapman acting family | See Koon, West, chap. 4 (‘The Chapman Family’).
136 | these were small groups | See Koon, West, especially chap.7 (‘Stars – More or Less’).
136 | the money was dizzying | Figures from Koon, West, 6.
136 | ‘six dresses, two wigs’ | Koon, West, 9.
136 | McKean ‘Buck’ Buchanan | Koon, West, 72.
137 | fifty stock companies | Koon, West, 7.
137 | Lola Montez | Detail on all the performers included in this section is in Koon, Gold Rush Performers: A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Singers, Dancers . . . ( Jefferson, NC, 1994).
137 | Sarah Kirby Stark | See entry in Koon, Dictionary, and Jane Kathleen Curry, Nineteenth-Century American Women Theatre Managers (Westport, CN, 1994).
138 | J.D. Borthwick | See J.D. Borthwick, Three Years in California (Edinburgh, 1857), 186–7.
138 | Borthwick quotations | Borthwick, 186–87.
141 | figures compiled in the mid-1990s | Granular facts and figures, as well as background on individual festivals, are in Ron Engle, Felicia Hardison Londré and Daniel J. Watermeier (eds), Shakespeare Companies and Festivals: An International Guide (Westport, CN, 1995). A quick and readable introduction to the festival scene is in John A. Coleman, ‘Summers with Shakespeare’, America, 27 August 2012 [http://americamagazine.org/issue/5149/theater/summers-shakespeare].
142 | contemporary playwright Richard Nelson | The plays mentioned are How Shakespeare Won the West (New York, 2010) and Two Shakespearean Actors (New York, 1992).
143 | Walter M. Leman | Walter Leman, Memories of an Old Actor (San Francisco, 1886). Another detailed – perhaps over-detailed – account of the touring life is Noah Ludlow’s Dramatic Life as I Found It (St Louis, MO, 1880).
144 | Duke Ellington | Such Sweet Thunder exists in various versions, both studio album and live, and is widely available; several different versions are on YouTube and streaming services.
145 | Shakespeare quotation | A Midsummer Night’s Dream, 4.1.113–6.
146 | whether he was the Shakespeare we would recognise | On frontier adaptations, see Vaughan and Vaughan, 90–102, and Koon, West, 12–17.
147 | farces and burlesques | The best account of these works is Richard W. Schoch, Not Shakespeare: Bardolatry and Burlesque(Cambridge, 2002); many texts are printed in Stanley Wells (ed.), Nineteenth Century Shakespeare Burlesques, 5 vols (London, 1977).
147 | Hamlet Travestie quotation | Hamlet Travestie, New York promptbook, cited in Schoch, 51.
148 | quotation | Cited in Sturgess, chap. 4.
148 | Lawrence W. Levine | Lawrence W. Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, MA, 1988).
149 | ‘for who would fardels bear’ | Mark Twain, Huckleberry Finn: The Original Text Edition, ed. Alan Gribben (Montgomery, AL, 2011), 142. This and other Twain references are cited in the relevant sections of Shapiro, Shakespeare in America.
149 | The culture that obtained | On Jacksonian culture, see especially Sturgess, chap. 4, and Frances Teague, Shakespeare and the American Popular Stage (Cambridge, 2006), chap. 2.
149 | ‘a profusion of esculents’ | Cited in Mabel Celeste Ashley, ‘Gold Rush Theatre in Nevada City, California’, unpublished MA thesis, Stanford University (1967), 32.
150 | middle-class phenomenon | Many details are drawn from Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York, 2000).
150 | ‘the play-going portion’ | The New Orleans Daily Picayune, 14 March, 1844, quoted in Jospeh Roppolo, ‘Hamlet in New Orleans’, Tulane Studies in English 6 (1956), 74.
151 | Warde was the great lost hero | See especially Alan Woods, ‘Frederick B. Warde: America’s Greatest Forgotten Tragedian’, Educational Theatre Journal 29 (1977), 333–44, from where many details are drawn.
152 | Shakespearian Spinach | Available on YouTube at: [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4yRln_cwZ8].
154 | The Mad Booths of Maryland | Stanley Kimmel, The Mad Booths of Maryland (New York, 1940), 112.
154 | the very first theatres | Maev Kennedy, ‘Shakespeare’s Shoreditch Theatre Unearthed’, The Guardian, 7 August 2008 [http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2008/aug/07/shakespeare.shoreditch] and ‘Shakespeare’s Curtain Theatre Unearthed in East London’, The Guardian, 6 June 2012 [http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2012/jun/06/shakespeare-curtain-theatre-shoreditch-east-lonfon].
154 | didn’t mean an actual theatre | For playing spaces, see Koon, West, 10–11.
157 | The Nevada’s story | A brief history of the theatre is included on its homepage [http://www.nevadatheatre.com]; more details are drawn from Ashley, ‘Gold Rush Theatre’.
158 | intricacy of its construction | For a scene-by-scene casting chart of Romeo and Juliet, see René Weis’s Arden 3 edition (London, 2012).
160 | ‘among the poets’ | William Cullen Bryant, Orations and Addresses(1873 [repr. London, 2013]), 375.
160 | Shakespeare quotation | Othello, 3.3.388–93.
161 | ‘a tyrant fit’ | Sturgess, 56.
161 | prototype Horatio Alger figure | Mark Thornton Burnett, ‘Parodying with Richard’, in Sarah Hatchuel and Nathalie Vienne-Guerrin (eds), Shakespeare on Screen: Richard III (Rouen, 2005), 91–112.
162 | ‘special significance’ | Susan Lee Johnson, “Bulls, Bears, and Dancing Boys: Race, Gender, and Leisure in the California Gold Rush,” Radical History Review 60 (1994), 27-28.
162 | Shakespeare quotations | Richard III, 1.3.215; 5.7.9–10.
163 | Whitman quotation | In Asia Booth Clarke, Booth Memorials: Passages, Incidents and Anecdotes in the Life of Junius Brutus Booth, (New York, 1870). 112.
165 | The Old Globe | The most colourful account of the early years is Darlene Gould Davies, ‘The Globe Players in Balboa Park’, The Journal of San Diego History 56, 121–36 [https://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/v56-3/v56-3davies.pdf].
167 | British theatre-maker William Poel | An excellent retelling of Poel’s life and work is by Marion F O’Connor in Cary M. Mazer (ed.), Great Shakespeareans: Poel, Granville Barker, Guthrie, Wanamaker (London, 2013).
168 | Sam Wanamaker | Paul Prescott’s account of Wanamaker’s life in Cary M. Mazer (ed.), Great Shakespeareans: Poel, Granville Barker, Guthrie, Wanamaker (London, 2013) is the best by far, and lays to rest numerous myths.
170 | True Tragedie quotation | In The True Tragedie of Richard the Third (London, 1594).
171 | Shakespeare quotation | 5.5.194–6.
172 | article in the New Yorker | Ian Crouch, ‘Richard III’s House of Cards’, The New Yorker, 4 February 2013 [http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/richard-iiis-house-of-cards].